In Turkey there are 108 television channels and 83 radio-TVs in total; 14 of which are national, 11 regional, 83 local. State owned Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT), owns 13 channels in total. In 2009 TRT started broadcasting in Kurdish with its channel named TRT Kurdi. Additionally, in 2010, TRT El Arabia which broadcasts in Arabic was established. TRT is mostly criticized for pro-government broadcasting.
TRT held the monopoly in broadcasting until commercial TVs were in the 1990's. Star 1, the first private TV station, was founded in 1990. A law for private broadcasting was added to the constitution in 1993. At the moment, out of the top 10 TV channels that hold the most audience six belong to Doğuş, Doğan and Kalyon Groups.
Television continues to be the most popular media platform in Turkey and therefore has the largest piece of the advertising pie, with 53.2 per cent in the first of half od 2016. Based on data from Turkish Foundation of Advertisers', out of a total of USD 1 million investment in advertisement, 14.75 per cent goes to newspapers, 22.07 goes to digital platforms, 2.27 goes to radio. According to a study conducted by public research company KONDA, 67 percent found out about the July 15 coup attempt via TV channels.
Shutdown of Television Channels
A Turkish court seized Koza İpek Media Group televisions Kanaltürk and Bugün TV in October 2015 based on being connected to the Gülen Organization. Public Satellite and Cable TV operations company Türksat stopped the broadcasts of Bugün TV, Kanaltürk TV, Samanyolu TV, S News TV, Mehtap TV and Irmak TV.
After the coup attempt in 15 July 2016, a state of emergency was declared on 20 July 2016, during which 178 media companies were shut down based on decrees numbered 668 (27 July 2016), 675 (29 October 2016) ve 677 (22 November 2016).
These shutdowns were based on "connection, coherence and communication with the Gülen Terror Organization (FETO/PYD) which has been established as a threat to national security; as well as terror organizations and structures and groups which have been declared as acting against the security of the state, by the National Security Council."
First 16 TV channels were shut down through decree 668, 12 were shut down by RTÜK based on decree 668. On October 3, Med Nûçe TV, which broadcasted in Europe, banned on French satellite Eutelsat through Turkey's official request.
Which Channels Were Shut Down?
Barış TV, Bugün TV, Can Erzincan TV, Dünya TV, MC TV, Mehtap TV, Merkür TV, Samanyolu Haber, Hira TV, Irmak TV, Kanal 124, Kanaltürk, Samanyolu TV, SRT TV, Tuna Shopping TV, Yumurcak TV, İMC TV, Hayat'ın Sesi TV, Özgür Gün TV, Jiyan TV, Azadi TV, Denge TV, Van TV, Van Genç TV, TV 10, Mezopotamya TV, Birlik Medya TV, Zarok TV.
The closure of SRT TV was canceled through a decree. The Kurdish children's channel Zarok TV restarted operating with the condition that it broadcast 40 per cent in Turkish.
Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK)
Radio and Television Authority of Turkey (RTÜK) was formed in 1994 based on the "act of the establishment of Radio and TV Initiatives and Broadcast." Regulation of broadcast organizations, providing licenses and auditing of broadcasters are among the authority's responsibilities. According to BİA Media Monitoring Report of the year 2016; in 2016 RTÜK gave warnings to 50 TV channels, fines to 112 and broadcast bans to two. Meanwhile, the authority gave radios 7 warnings and 11 fines. The total of fines based on the violation of broadcast principles reached USD 4.5 million.