All media outlets monitored by MOM belong to a company. Radio and Television Regulatory Authority (RTÜK) provides channel and frequencies for radio and television. The 28th Article of the Constitution guarantees that the publication of periodicals and non-periodicals do not need a permit or a warrant. To publish a newspaper, it is adequate to apply to the chief prosecutor's office with the necessary legal documents, whereas a license is not needed to publish an online news portal.
Is there horizontal concentration?
Do same capital owners own multiple media outlets that are independent from each other? Is there horizontal concentration in the Turkish media?
Print (60%) and online (83%)audience shares show a high horizontal concentration in Turkey; whereas the audience shares of radio (40%) and TV (%44) is a little below the limit (50%) of horizontal concentration and show a medium audience concentration.
Many major dailies also have high audience share in the online sector.
Cross-media ownership is 71%, meaning high concentration of 4 major companies for four different media types.
Many politically affiliated media owners
The owners of the media in the top ten list have close relations with the government. 45% of the audience in Turkey watch TV that is owned by those politically affiliated. This rate is 73% among online news portal audience (excluding data belong to Demirören’s online news portals), 52% of print media audience and 42% of radio listeners.
State-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) is responsible with public broadcasting and is a public entity. However, although they have to act as public broadcasters, TRT television channels and radio stations have always been criticized for being the voice of the government at different levels.
With the decree in July 2018, TRT has been tied to Directorate of Communications, which means it directly under control of Presidency.
RTÜK Supreme Council member from People's Democratic Party (HDP), Ersin Öngel, released the shares of live broadcasts of the 25 days leading to the November 2015 general elections: TRT has reserved 30 hours of broadcast to AKP, additional 29 hours to President Erdogan himself, but only 5 hours to opposition party CHP, 1 hour to opposition party MHP and only 18 minutes to opposition party HDP.
As of April 2019, Out of 9 members of the Supreme Council, 5 members are from AKP, 2 from CHP, 2 from MHP as of March 2019. HDP is not being represented in the council. With the decree in July 2018, RTUK has been tied to the Culture and Tourism Ministry.
The violation of ethics set by the Supreme Election Council with TRT's nine-hour broadcast of an AKP congress on 12 September 2015 was carried to the parliament.
June 2016 saw an increase in the taxes diverted as revenues to TRT. According to a new law, additional 1.1 billion TL (USD 376,000) will co-fund TRT from extra taxes placed on mobile phone sales.
State-run Anadolu Agency
Anadolu Agency (AA) is a joint stock company which was founded by the state of Turkey. Its shares are owned by the Undersecretariat of Treasury. AA is the largest news agency in Turkey, with its structuring both inside and outside the country. The broadcasting of Anadolu Agency, like that of TRT, has been and is being criticized for being pro-government.
In 2011, 70 Turkish Journalists Union (TGS) member employees of the agency were forced to retire and the positions of 52 TGS member employees were downgraded. A new union was formed by the agency, which has been criticized as "serving the employer." The appointment of Kemal Öztürk in 2011 and Şenol Kazancı in 2014 as the head of the agency, brought many staff dismissals from the agency.
Anadolu is a monopoly as no other national news-agency exists.