According to the Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK) 176 national, 51 regional and 2247 local newspapers were published in 2017, totaling 2474. The number of newspapers and magazines published in 2017 decreased by 2.3 percent decreased to 6124 compared to 2016. 59.6 percent of these publications were magazines.
The circulation of newspapers and magazines decreased by 2,6% in 2017 compared to 2016. The annual circulation of newspapers and magazines published in Turkey in 2017 was 1.661.102.580, of which 93.9% were newspapers. Daily newspapers produced 88.7 percent of the annual circulation of newspapers.
TÜİK's circulation data includes newspapers that are given out for free as well. According to Medyatava, which uses data from distribution firms, the total circulation is significantly lower - at around 2.780.000 (3,44% of the population) in September 2018.
Print Media Became Fourth in Advertisement Investment
According to the estimates (2019) by Advertisers' Association, the advertising revenues of the newspapers decreased by 19% compared to 2017. So, dailies held 9,5 percent of advertisements in the whole of media and became fourth after TV (47%) and digital portals (28.9%) outdoor investments (10.3%)
In 2018, the total media investments were USD 2272 million, USD 568 million of which was belonged to the advertising investments.
An important source of income for newspapers is public announcements and advertising handed out by the state-controlled Press Advertising Authority (BİK). How much advertising revenue each paper gets is determined according to the paper's circulation, and, it is largely claimed that free newspapers are also included in the circulation data of newspapers and that circulation numbers are inflated for more advertisement.
According to data achieved from BİK, in 2017, the number of official advertisements and advertisements increased by 4.5 percent to USD 121.600.
However, neither the media companies nor BİK shares the sum of advertising revenues. It was learned that the advertisement investment is priced parallel to the circulation of the newspapers.
Changes in the media sector
In 2018, Hürriyet, Sabah and Posta were the top three newspapers in advertising revenue (September 2018). Despite the fact that Sözcü is high as a circulation (the third, following Hürriyet and Sabah), it was reported that the number of its advertisements is limited due to its oppositional stance.
As of November 2018, the most popular daily newspapers are Sabah, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Posta, Milliyet, Türkiye, Yeni Şafak, Takvim, Akşam, and Güneş (BIK November 2018)
The most significant change in the media sector in Turkey was the sale of all media assets of Doğan Groups to Demirören Group in March 2018. The Doğan Group has withdrawn completely from the media sector. With this change, among the top 10 list, Demirören Group has now three newspapers (including Hürriyet, Posta and Milliyet) except for Vatan newspaper, which was closed on October 31, 2018 but was distributed as a weekend supplement of Milliyet newspaper. But Vatan as gazetevatan.com still goes online.
According to data we received from Press Advertising Authority (BİK), in 2018, Hürriyet daily ranked first in terms of circulation rates until April 2018. However, Sabah daily got ahead of Hürriyet in April and ranked first until the end of year. It is considered that this situation may be related to the transfer of Hürriyet daily to Demirören Group in March.
In addition, the print edition of Ciner Group's Habertürk was closed in July 2018 and it goes digital only.
Ethem Sancak, (owner of the BMC which manufactures TOMA, the water cannon vehicle for the General Directorate of Security Affairs, and armored personal carries for the Turkish Armed Forces) sold its media assets (known as ES Medya) to Zeki Yeşildağ whose brother (Hasan Yeşildağ) has close ties with President Erdoğan. ES Medya is now known as Türk Medya (T Medya Yatırım San. ve Tic. A.Ş).
As of March 2019, Demirören Groups own three daily high circulated newspapers (Hürriyet, Posta and Milliyet), Kalyon Group (Sabah and Takvim) and Türk Medya (previously cited as ES Medya) (Akşam and Güneş) has two dailies. İhlas Group (Türkiye daily), Estetik Yayıncılık (Sözcü daily), Albayrak Group (Yeni Şafak) each owns one newspaper.
Except Burak Akbay's Sözcü, all newspapers in the top 10 list belong to groups known to be close to the ruling AKP. All owners except for one (Burak Akbay) have major investments outside of media that depend on state contracts, such as in energy and construction.
Decrees Released Under the State of Emergency
In October 2015, a Turkish court seized Ipek-Koza Groups' Millet and Bugün dailies; and in March 2016 Feza Yayıncılık which owned Zaman, Today's Zaman and Meydan newspapers, as well as Cihan News Agency and Aksiyon magazine. The trustees which took over the newspapers, shut them down.
The decrees [668 (27.07.2016), 675 (29.10.2016), 677 (22.11.2016), 675 (29.10.2016) ve 670 (17.08.2016), 689 ( 29.04. 2017),693 (25.08.2017) ve 695 (24.12.2017) and 701(08.07.2018) ] declared during the state of emergency, brought the shutdowns of 6 news agencies, 41 radios, 38 TVs, 70 newspapers, 20 magazines, and 29 printing houses and distribution channels (in total 204 news agencies). The decisions to shut down 17 newspapers, 4 radios, 4 TV and a total of 25 media organizations under decrees were canceled.
With these decrees, 668 (45), 675 (10) ve 677 (7), 689 (1), 693 (2), 695 (2) and 701 (3), in total 73 newspaper were shut down. The decisions to shut 17 of these newspapers. As of March 2019, 53 newspapers, 20 magazines, and 29 printing houses are still closed.
In 2018, 3 newspapers (Halkın Nabzı, Özgürlükçü Demokrasi ve Azadiya Welat) and 1TV ( Avantaj TV) were shut down based on decree 701.
In 2017, one newspaper and one magazine were shut down, and two dailies and one media agency based on decree 689 and 693 respectively in 2017. Also, with decree 695, two newspapers were shut down. In 2016, 62 newspapers have been shut down based on decrees 668 (45), 675 (10) and 677 (7); 14 were shut down based on decree 668, three were shut down based on decree 675 and one based on 677. Through additional lists of closures, two news agencies were shut down based on decree 675, 29 publishing houses and distribution companies were shut down based on decree 668.
These shutdowns were based on "connection and communication with the Gulenist Terror Organization (FETO/PYD) which has been established as a threat to national security; as well as terror organizations and structures and groups which have been declared as acting against the security of the state, by the National Security Council."
As of January 2019, 123 journalists in Turkey, were in prison due to the work of journalism and political lawsuits. Of the 123 journalists in prison, 47 were convicted and 34 were still on trial. 30 people have been investigated and 12 of them were sentenced and they went to the Supreme Court.
73 journalists and media representatives arrested in the context of FETÖ / PDY-linked operations and 38 journalists and media employees were in prison on charges of their links to organizations such as the PKK / PYD / KCK were in prison as of January 1, 2019. Eighteen were of 38 journalists on trial in charges of “KCK - PKK - DYG membership or propaganda”, while 11 were still on trial; 9 were under investigation. 12 of the media people was also charged with being connected or convicted to various illegal or armed organizations. (İsim isim hapis gazeteciler 17 January 2019).
In 2017, 79 of the imprisoned journalists were in prison as part of the “Fethullahist Terrorist Organization (FETÖ)” investigation. 24 journalists were associated with organizations such as “PKK/PYD/YDGH”. The remaining 19 journalists are from Cumhuriyet (3) Evrensel (1), Die Welt (1), Sosyalist Dayanışma magazine (1), Atılım (1), Eylül Hapishane magazine (1), ETHA Ajansı (2), Emek-Adalet magazine (1), Özgür Gelecek (1), Odak (1), Mezitli FM radio channel (1), Yeni Evrede Mücadele Birliği Magazine (1), Nokta (1), TV10 (1), Solyayin.com (1), and one is a freelance photo-reporter. (BIA Media Monitoring Report 2017)
Adana Haber Gazetesi, Batman Postası Gazetesi, Adana Medya Gazetesi, Batman Doğuş Gazetesi, Akdeniz Türk Gazetesi, Bingöl Olay Gazetesi, İrade Gazetesi, Kurtuluş Gazetesi, İskenderun Olay Gazetesi, Lider Gazetesi, Ekonomi, İscehisar Durum Gazetesi , Demokrat Gebze Gazetesi, Antalya Gazetesi, Kocaeli Manşet, Yerel Bakış Gazetesi, Bizim Kocaeli, Nazar, Haber Kütahya Gazetesi, Batman Gazetesi, Gediz Gazetesi, Son Nokta Gazetesi, Merkür Haber Gazetesi, Millet Gazetesi, Turgutlu Havadis Gazetesi, Bugün Gazetesi, Milas Feza Gazetesi, Meydan Gazetesi, Türkiye'de Yeni Yıldız Gazetesi, Özgür Düşünce Gazetesi, Özgürlükçü Demokrasi, Halkın Nabzı, Hakikat Gazetesi, Taraf Gazetesi, Urfa Haber Ajansı Gazetesi, Yarına Bakış Gazetesi, Ajans 11 Gazetesi, Yeni Hayat Gazetesi, Yeni Emek Gazetesi, Zaman Gazetesi, Banaz Postası Gazetesi, Today's Zaman Gazetesi, Özgür Gündem Gazetesi, Azadiya Welat Gazetesi, Cizre Postası Gazetesi, Yüksekova Haber Gazetesi, Güney Express Gazetesi, Express Gazetesi, Dağyeli Gazetesi, Türkiye Manşet, Akis Gazetesi, İpekyolu Gazetesi, Yedigün Gazetesi, Son Dakika Gazetesi
Among the shutdown newspapers, Batman, Batman Çağdaş, Bingöl Olay, Kurtuluş, Lider, İscehisar, İdil Haber, Ege'de Sonsöz and Hakikat, Hisar Gazetesi, Kızıltepe'nin Sesi, Prestij Haber, Şuhut'un Sesi Urfanatik, Türkeli were reopened through decrees.
Akademik Araştırmalar Dergisi, Aksiyon, Asya Pasifik (PASİAD) Dergisi, Bisiklet Çocuk Dergisi, Diyalog Avrasya Dergisi, Gül Yaprağı Dergisi, Nokta, Sızıntı, Ekolife Dergisi, Ekoloji Dergisi, Fountain Dergisi, Gonca Dergisi, Yağmur Dergisi, Yeni Ümit, Zirve Dergisi, Özgürlük Dünyası Dergisi, Tiroj Dergisi, Evrensel Kültür, Haberexen dergisi,Bağımsızlık, Demokrasi, Sosyalizm İçin Yürüyüş Dergisi
Shutdown news agencies
Cihan Haber Ajansı, Muhabir Haber Ajansı, SEM Haber Ajansı, Dicle Haber Ajansı, Jin Haber Ajansı. Dihaber - Dicle Medya Haber Ajansı, Adana Haber Ajansı.
Shutdown publishing houses and distribution companies
Altın Burç Yayınları, Işık Akademi, Burak Basın Yayın Dağıtım, Işık Özel Eğitim Yayınları, Define Yayınları, Işık Yayınları, Dolunay Eğitim Yayın Dağıtım, İklim Basın Yayın Pazarlama, Giresun Basın Yayın Dağıtım, Kaydırak Yayınları, Gonca Yayınları, Kaynak Yayınları, Gülyurdu Yayınları, Kervan Basın Yayıncılık, GYV Yayınları, Kuşak Yayınları, Ufuk Basın Yayın Haber Ajans Pazarlama, Muştu Yayınları, Ufuk Yayınları, Nil Yayınları, Waşanxaneya Nil, Rehber Yayınları, Yay Basın Dağıtım Pazarlama-Reklamcılık, Sürat Basım Yayın Reklamcılık Eğitim Araçları, Yeni Akademi Yayınları, Sütun Yayınları, Yitik Hazine Yayınları, Şahdamar Yayınları, Zambak Basın Yayın Eğitim Turizm
*These shutdowns include the accusations of being linked to both “FETO/PDY” and “PKK/PYD/KCK”Regulation Regarding Official Advertisement
A new criterion was brought into the regulation of official advertisement by Press Advertising Authority (BİK) - a public entity which is responsible for the distribution of official advertising - on October 5, 2016. With the new "Regulation Regarding Periodicals to Run Official Announcements and Advertisements," the right of a media outlet to publish official advertising is stopped, until the cases regarding "crimes against constitutional order" and/or "counter-terrorism against the grant holder, the individual proprietor or the legal entity, or representatives of the legal entity, major part of the partners or legal proprietors are closed. With the same regulation, media outlets that do not dismiss employees that are standing trial based on the same allegations in five days will also lose their right to publish official advertising.
Print Media Statistics. (2017)
2017'de yayımlanan KHK'larda neler var?
BİA Medya Gözlem Raporları
Türkiye’de Can Çekişen İfade Özgürlüğü:OHAL’de Yazarlar, Yayıncılar ve Akademisyenlerle İlgili Hak İhlalleri
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018
Türkiye’de Tahmini Medya ve Reklam Yatırımları Reklamcılar Derneği Raporu, 2018 March 2019
İsim İsim Hapis Gazeteciler (17.01.2019)