Media ownership and concentration
2,731 daily newspapers, 734 radio stations, 83 radio-TVs and 108 TV channels are active in Turkey. Internet access rate of households is 76.3 per cent. Mobile phone and/or smart phone owners make up 96.9 per cent of the population. 69.5 per cent get news from the Internet; while 82.4 per cent of Internet users follow news on social media (TÜİK 2016).
40 per cent of all media followers in table below are owned by eight media groups. Half of these top media owners have investments in at least three media types out of the four types studied throughout this research, which are radio, TV, newspapers and online web portals. The top media owners, Doğan and Kalyon Groups, have investments in all four media types and share 10 per cent and 7 per cent of all media audience respectively. These groups are followed by Demirören Group (6%), Ciner Group (5%), Doğuş Group (4%), State owned TRT (3%), Estetik Yayıncılık (Sözcü Daily and website - 3%) and Hayat Görsel Yayıncılık (Kanal 7, Radyo 7, haber7.com - 2%).