In Turkey, there are 36 national, 102 regional, 952 local radio stations totalling 1090.
The Turkish Radio and Television (TRT), which is responsible for "public broadcast," held the radio monopoly until 1992. TRT owns five national, five regional, three international and three local radio stations. First radio broadcast was conducted in 1927. TRT is mostly criticized for broadcasting pro-government news.
Among the media groups, Doğan Group (Radyo D, Slow Türk, CNN Türk) and Doğuş Group (Kral FM, NTV Radio, Kral Pop Radio, Kral World Radio) are the two media companies dominating the sector. They have 2 radio stations each in the top 10 list. Besides, also state-owned TRT has 2 radio stations in the same list.
Audience and Advertisement Shares
According to a URYAD & Nielsen weekly research in July 2016, 63,3 percent of Turkish society listens to the radio, women less (59 percent) than men (68 percent). Among the socioeconomic groups, AB group (the audience that consists of the "elite" consumer group in the country) is more likely to listen to the radio with 72 percent. Almost 70% of radio listeners in Turkey are between the ages 35-44.
According to the first half of 2016 estimates by Advertisers' Association; in 2015, radio held 2.27 per cent of advertisement of the whole of media, which grew by 14 per cent making advertisement investment USD 1 million in total.
Shutdown of radio stations
After the coup attempt a State of Emergency (OHAL) was declared on 20 July 2016 and through decrees numbered 668, (27 July 2016), 675 (29 October 2016) and 677 (22 November 2016) 178 media organizations were closed down. 24 of these were radio stations; 23 of them were shut down through decree 668 and one was shut down through decree 677. 10 radios were shut down on 28 September 2016 through decree 668 by the Radio and Television Authority of Turkey (RTÜK).
On the decrees, these shut downs were based on "having relations, coherence and communication with the Gulenist Terror Organization (FETO/PYD) which has been established as a threat to national security; as well as terror organizations and structures and groups which have been declared as acting against the security of the state, by the National Security Council."
Which radios have been shut down?
Aksaray Mavi Radyo, Esra Radyo, Aktüel Radyo, Haber Radyo Ege, Berfin FM, Herkül FM, Burç FM, Jest FM, Cihan Radyo, Kanaltürk Radyo, Dünya Radyo, Radyo 59, Radyo Aile Rehberi, Radyo Nur, Radyo Bamteli, Radyo Şimşek, Radyo Cihan (İstanbul), Samanyolu Haber Radyosu, Radyo Fıkıh, Umut FM, Radyo Küre, Yağmur FM, Radyo Mehtap, Patnos FM, Rengin Radyo, Radyo Karacadağ, Özgür Radyo, Özgür Güneş Radyosu
Ses Radyo, Radyo Dünya (Adana), Doğu Radyo, Yön Radyo, Gün Radyo, Batman FM.
The shut down of decisions for Yağmur FM, Umut FM and Yön FM have been lifted through decrees.
Radio and Television Authority of Turkey (RTÜK) was formed in 1994 based on the "act of the establishment of Radio and TV Initiatives and Broadcast." Regulation of broadcast organizations, providing licenses and auditing of broadcasters are among the authority's responsibilities. In 2015, RTÜK has given four warnings and for fines.
ZINTX (2015), Turkey's Radio Advertising Market
URYAD - Ulusal Radyo Yayıncıları Derneği
RATEM - Radyo Televizyon Yayıncıları Meslek Birliği
Cumhuriyet (2016), 12 TV 11 radyo kanalı kapatıldı
Bianet (2016), Kapatılan radyolar nerede ne zaman yayına başladı
Bianet (2016), Özgür Radyo yayını kesildi, çalışanlar darpla gözaltına alındı