In Turkey, there are 34 national, 81 regional, 784 local radio stations totaling 899. (See: in 2016 there were 36 national, 102 regional, 952 local radio stations totaling 1090).
The Turkish Radio and Television (TRT), which is responsible for "public broadcast," held the radio monopoly until 1992. TRT owns five national, five regionals, three international and three local radio stations. The first radio broadcast was conducted in 1927. TRT is mostly criticized for broadcasting pro-government news.
Among the media groups, Demirören Group (Radyo D and CNN Türk) and Doğuş Group (Kral FM, NTV Radio, Kral Pop, Kral World Radio) are the two media companies dominating the sector. They have two radio stations each in the top 10 list. Besides, the state-owned TRT FM, follows the top radio station, Kral Fm according to the audience shares of October 2018 (URYAD)
Audience and Advertisement Shares
According to a URYAD & Nielsen weekly research in October 2018, 56 percent of Turkish society listens to the radio, women less (43.9 percent weekly) than men (56.1 percent weekly). Among the socio-economic groups, AB group (the audience that consists of the "elite" consumer group in the country) is more likely to listen to the radio with 81.5 percent. Almost 78.7% of radio listeners in Turkey are between the ages of 35-44. (URYAD; RUIK and Nielsen 2018)
According to the 2019 estimates by Advertisers' Association; the total share of media and advertising investments in the sector reached 11.002 million in 2018. Of which, the radio held was 3.3% with a growth rate of 5.6 %.
Shutdown of radio stations
The decrees [668 (27.07.2016), 675 (29.10.2016), 677 (22.11.2016), 675 (29.10.2016) ve 670 (17.08.2016), 689 ( 29.04. 2017),693 (25.08.2017) ve 695 (24.12.2017) and 701(08.07.2018) ] declared during the state of emergency, brought the shutdowns of 6 news agencies, 41 radios, 38 TVs, 70 newspapers, 20 magazines, and 29 printing houses and distribution channels (in total 204 news agencies). This includes the decisions to shut down by RTÜK (19 TV channels and 17 radio stations).
The decisions to shut down 17 newspapers, 4 radios, 4 TV and a total of 25 media organizations under decrees were canceled. During the OHAL period in total 179 media agencies (53 newspaper, 34 TV, 37 Radio station, 20 magazines, and 6 news agencies) and 29 publishing house were shut down.
On the decrees, these shutdowns were based on "having relations, coherence and communication with the Gulenist Terror Organization (FETO/PYD) which has been established as a threat to national security; as well as terror organizations and structures and groups which have been declared as acting against the security of the state, by the National Security Council."
During the state of emergency period, the number of closed radio stations was 41 (including the decisions by RTUK). 4 of these decisions were canceled.
The shutdown of the decision of 37 radio stations are still active.
Which radios have been shut down?
Aksaray Mavi Radyo, Esra Radyo, Aktüel Radyo, Haber Radyo Ege, Berfin FM, Herkül FM, Burç FM, Jest FM, Cihan Radyo, Kanaltürk Radyo, Dünya Radyo, Radyo Aile Rehberi, Radyo Nur, Radyo Bamteli, Radyo Şimşek, Radyo Cihan (İstanbul), Samanyolu Haber Radyosu, Radyo Fıkıh, Radyo Küre, Radyo Mehtap, Patnos FM, Rengin Radyo, Radyo Karacadağ, Özgür Radyo, Özgür Güneş Radyosu, Ses Radyo, Radyo Dünya (Adana), Doğu Radyo, Yön Radyo, Gün Radyo, Batman FM (As of March 2018)
The shut down of decisions for Yağmur FM, Umut FM, Radyo 59, and Yön FM have been lifted through decrees.
Radio and Television Authority of Turkey (RTÜK) was formed in 1994 based on the "act of the establishment of Radio and TV Initiatives and Broadcast." Regulation of broadcast organizations, providing licenses and auditing of broadcasters are among the authority's responsibilities.
In 2018, 5 radio programmes were temporarily stopped and 1 fine was issued by RTÜK. Including the fines issued to TVs, RTÜK issued 11,951,153 TRY of fines in total.
After the coup attempt, in 2016, RTUK has given 7 warnings and 11 fines to the radio stations; and 3 warnings and 12 for fines to them in 2017.
Radyo Dinleyici Ölçümü Araştırması Ekim 2018
RATEM – Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Yayıncılığı Sektör Raporu 2018
Türkiye’de Tahmini Medya ve Reklam Yatırımları Reklamcılar Derneği Raporu, 2018
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018
Bianet (2016), Kapatılan radyolar nerede ne zaman yayına başladı
BİA Media Monitoring Report 2018: One Year of the Journalist and the Media