This is an automatically generated PDF version of the online resource turkey.mom-rsf.org/en/ retrieved on 2019/05/23 at 00:21
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Online Media

In Turkey, 82 million 3882 people live (TÜİK February 2019). 59.36 million of the total population are active internet users (app. 72 percent of the total population). 44 million users are active mobile users (mobile internet users makes up 53% of the total population) (We are social 2019)

Internet use is around 72,9 percent as of August 2018, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK). 80,4 percent of men use the internet, compared to 65,5 percent of women. According to 2018 report published by TUIK, %45,6 of the population used the facilities of the “e-government” web site and %41,7 of the total population use the internet in order to get information from official websites.

According to a 2019 study by We Are Social, "Internet and Social Media User Statistics", in Turkey, 84 percent of Internet users go online every day and spent average 7 hours for using the internet via any device and 12 percent of the society goes online at least once every week.

There are 52 million social media users in Turkey. Youtube is the most popular social media platform. Instagram and Facebook follow Youtube (We are Social 2019).

According to an online survey published in Reuters Institute's Digital News Report 2018, 66 percent of surveyed Internet users in urban Turkey said they use social media as a news source, though it has declined from a peak of 73% in 2016. Among social media platforms, for the news gathering, Facebook is the most used, with 51 percent. Youtube is used by 41 percent, Twitter is used by 35 percent.

According to the Digital News Report, Turkey Supplement of Reuters Institute (2018) by Prof. Yanatma, the main source of news varies strikingly by political leaning. Online media (45%) is the primary source for left-wing respondents whereas for those on the right it is TV (59%).

Based on data from Advertisers Association published in March 2019, out of a total of TL 2751 million of investment in the advertisement, 28,9 percent goes to digital media. Digital media investments, which grew by 14.8 percent, reached TL 2.385 million.

According to their report for 2018, hurriyet.com.tr is the most viewed news portal. However, they do not transparently share the data with any research company. For this reason, the online news portals of Demirören Group (hurriyet.com.tr, milliyet.com.tr, ve gazetevatan.com) are being excluded from the top 10 online media portals that MoM has researched. In this case, according to research made by Gemius (October 2018), Ciner Group’s haberturk.com ranks first in this list.

Social media is closely monitored by the government. President Erdoğan has strongly criticized Twitter - and social media in general - many times, most recently saying that he is "against social media" after the Atatürk Airport bombing in July 2016.
Turkey periodically orders Internet service providers to block access to social media sites by slowing traffic. Twitter, Facebook, and Youtube have been temporarily shut in 2016 as many times before.

Turkey ranked among the countries with the highest number of content removal requests sent to Twitter and Facebook, as reported in the transparency report. The last updated Twitter report (January - June 2018) indicates that 13843 accounts reported from Turkey, they have removed some content on 2,560 accounts. 8480 accounts were requested for removal (by the government agency and police). Twitter has withheld 527 accounts of which 425 accounts from Turkey. Out of 2656 tweets that withheld, 1464 withheld tweet through the request of Turkey. Twitter has filed 113 legal objections with Turkish courts in response to 508 court orders, on the grounds that they did not comply with the principles of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and/or did not specify the content at issue. According to this report of transparency, Turkey continued to submit the most requests, accounting for approximately 73% of the overall worldwide total.

In addition, all editions of the Wikipedia was blocked in Turkey on April 29, 2017, without an official explanation in Turkey. It was later reported that Ankara the 1st Criminal Court has approved the ban on Wikipedia to prevent the access to the articles, named “Foreign Involvement in the Syrian Civil War” and “State-Sponsored Terrorism” that indicated the involvement of the Turkish government in the war. As of March 2019, Wikipedia has still remained inaccessible.

In March 2018, the new bill granting the RTUK (Radio and Television Supreme Council) authority to regulate online content has been approved by the parliament. The regulation of the content was not limited to commercial streaming services such as Netflix, Blu TV etc, as well as foreign-based online platforms.

Blocked websites

MoM 2016 has listed the blocked websites according to engelliweb.com a site which had monitored banned websites in 2016. According to this site, 117.949 websites were blocked and 1,423 news stories and other URLs, as well as 1,098 YouTube videos,  were banned in 2016. However, as of 2019, engelliweb.com is also shut down. Therefore, MoM Turkey used the data of BİA Media Monitoring Report 2018. According to this report, In 2018, at least 2,950 online news articles, 77 tweets, 22 Facebook posts, 5 Facebook videos and 10 websites were blocked. Three broadcast bans, one of which was temporary, issued.

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